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双语||乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信(中英文

文章作者:世界历史 上传时间:2019-11-04

原标题:双语||弘历太岁给大不列颠及英格兰联合王国始祖George三世的信(中德语卡塔尔国

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应天承运,太岁敕谕,英吉利君主知悉:

澳门新葡亰app网站,咨尔太岁,远在重洋,倾心向化,特遣使恭赍表章,航海来廷,叩祝万寿,并备进方物,用将忱悃(还带了众多礼品,忠心可嘉卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎。**朕披阅表文,词意肫恳,具见太岁恭顺之诚,深为嘉许。全数赍到表贡之正职和副职使臣,念其奉使远涉,推恩加礼。已令大臣指引瞻觐(让大臣教导他们远瞻天朝文明,赐予筵宴,叠合赏赉,用示怀柔。其已回珠山之管船官役人等四百余名,虽现在京,朕亦优加奖励,俾得普沾恩德,天公地道(已经回到金沙萨珠山的管船役使等600三人就算尚今后京,小编也一碗水端平给予优厚奖励,让我们都沾沾光卡塔尔。**

至尔圣上表内恳请派大器晚成尔国之人住居天朝,看护尔国购销生机勃勃节,此则与天朝体制不合,断不可行。平素西洋各个国家有愿来天朝当差之人,原准其来京,但既来过后,即遵用天朝服色,安放堂内,长久不许复回国内,此系天朝定制,想尔国君亦所知悉。今尔国王欲求派生机勃勃尔国之人居住京城,既无法若来京当差之西匈牙利人,在京居住不归本国,又不足听其来往,常通音讯,实为无效之事。且天朝所管地方至为广远,凡外藩使臣到京,驿馆须求,行为举止出入,俱有早晚体制,从无听其大肆之例。今尔国若留人在京,言语不通,服装殊制,无地得以安顿。若必似来京当差之西法国人,令其意气风发律改易服装,天朝亦不肯强人以所难。设天朝欲差人常驻尔国,亦岂尔国所能遵行(假使笔者天朝也派人常住你国,大概你国也差异意呢?卡塔尔?况西洋诸国甚多,非止尔一国,若俱似尔君王恳请派人留京,岂会豆蔻梢头大器晚成听许?是那件事断难准行。焉能因尔天皇一位之请,甚至更张天朝百多年法度(无法因为皇上你壹位之请,将天朝一百多年的规行矩步给废了卡塔尔。

若云尔帝王为照看买卖起见,则尔国人在温尼伯贸易非止二十八日,原无不加以恩视(若派人来京是为着照应买卖起见,这您国人在罗兹贸易亦非一天二日了,天朝原本对厂商就从未讲究卡塔尔国www.154.net,。即如早前博尔都噶尔亚、意达哩亚等国再三遣使来朝,亦曾以照望贸易为请。天朝鉴其悃忱,优加体恤(像从前葡萄牙共和国(República Portuguesa卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎、意大利共和国几国一些次派人来,也曾经以关照贸易的名义请本身照望。天朝看他们挺真诚的,也不轻易,就多加体恤卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)。凡遇这个国家等交易之事,无不照拂周备。前次西藏经纪人吴昭平有拖欠洋船价值银两个,俱饬令该管总督由官库内先行动支帑项代为归还,并将拖欠商人重治其罪。想那一件事尔国亦闻知矣,国外又何须派人留京,为此越例断不可行之请?况留人在京,距伯明翰贸易处所几及万里,伊亦何能照应耶(并且你们派人驻京,京城距Cordova差不离后生可畏万里,他怎么可以关照到?卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎?**双语||乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信(中英文)。若云爱慕天朝,欲其观习教诲,则天朝自有天朝礼法,与尔国各不相符。尔国所留之人即能习学,尔国自有民俗制度,亦断不可能模拟中黄炎子孙民共和国,即学会亦属无效**。

天朝扶有随地,惟发愤图强,办理行政事务,希世之珍,并不贵重(天朝管辖的地点那么大,小编想的是哪些努力,至于希世之珍啥的自身并不看得比较重卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎。尔皇上此番赍进各物,念其诚心远献,特谕该管衙门收纳(你啊此次进贡了超多红包,念你非常真诚大老远献来了,作者才特意下旨让有关机构收了卡塔尔国。双语||乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信(中英文)。**双语||乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信(中英文)。事实天公朝德威远被,万国来王,种种贵重之物,梯航毕集,无所下有,尔之正使等所亲见(其实天朝德泽四方,威加大世界,万国来朝,通过水田和旱地两路给本身进贡,咱什么贵重玩意儿都不缺,这几个你的行使都以亲眼见过的卡塔尔双语||乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信(中英文)。。然从不贵奇巧,并无更需尔国制办物件。是尔天皇所请派人留京一事,于天朝体制既属不合,而于尔国亦殊觉无益。特此详晰开示,遣令该使等安程回国(作者把话都挑明了,现令令你国使者立即布署回国路程卡塔尔国**尔天子惟当善体朕意,益励款诚,永矢恭顺,以保义尔有邦,共享太平之福(国君你应当很好地明白笔者的意思,对天朝要进一层热诚归附,发誓恒久对天朝恭顺,天朝的恩典就能够施予你们国家,一起创建和煦社会卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎。除正职和副职使臣以下各官及通事兵役人等正贯加赏各物件另单赏给外,兹因尔国使臣回国,特颁敕谕,并赐赍尔君主文绮珍物,具如常仪,加赐彩缎罗绮,文玩器械诸珍(除了正职和副职使臣以下一干人等都按等第赏给各个物件,因为你国使者登时将在回国,笔者又特地下令,除了按常规赏给你的有趣意儿以外,加赐你大块朵颐、文玩器材等有趣意儿若干卡塔尔国,另有清单。王其祗受,悉朕眷怀(皇恩浩荡,那都以本身对您们的酷爱卡塔尔

特此敕谕。**——**《清实录》

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Qianlong’s Letter to George III, 1793

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You, O King, live beyond the confines of many seas. Nevertheless, impelled by your humble desire to partake of the benefits of our civilisation, you have dispatched a mission respectfully bearing your memorial. Your Envoy has crossed the seas and paid his respects at my Court on the anniversary of my birthday. To show your devotion, you have also sent offerings of your country's produce.

I have perused your memorial: the earnest terms in which it is couched reveal a respectful humility on your part, which is highly praiseworthy. In consideration of the fact that your Ambassador and his deputy have come a long way with your memorial and tribute, I have shown them high favour and have allowed them to be introduced into my presence. To manifest my indulgence, I have entertained them at a banquet and made them numerous gifts. I have also caused presents to be forwarded to the Naval Commander and six hundred of his officers and men, although they did not come to Peking, so that they too may share in my all-­embracing kindness.

As to your entreaty to send one of your nationals to be accredited to my Celestial Court and to be in control of your country's trade with China, this request is contrary to all usage of my dynasty and cannot possibly be entertained. It is true that Europeans, in the service of the dynasty, have been permitted to live at Peking, but they are compelled to adopt Chinese dress, they are strictly confined to their own precincts and are never permitted to return home. You are presumably familiar with our dynastic regulations. Your proposed Envoy to my Court could not be placed in a position similar to that of European officials in Peking who are forbidden to leave China, nor could he, on the other hand, be allowed liberty of movement and the privilege of corresponding with his own country; so that you would gain nothing by his residence in our midst.

Moreover, our Celestial dynasty possesses vast territories, and tribute missions from the dependencies are provided for by the Department for Tributary States, which ministers to their wants and exercises strict control over their movements. It would be quite impossible to leave them to their own devices. Supposing that your Envoy should come to our Court, his language and national dress differ from that of our people, and there would be no place in which to bestow him. It may be suggested that he might imitate the Europeans permanently resident in Peking and adopt the dress and customs of China, but, it has never been our dynasty's wish to force people to do things unseemly and inconvenient. Besides, supposing I sent an Ambassador to reside in your country, how could you possibly make for him the requisite arrangements? Europe consists of many other nations besides your own: if each and all demanded to be represented at our Court, how could we possibly consent? The thing is utterly impracticable. How can our dynasty alter its whole procedure and system of etiquette, established for more than a century, in order to meet your individual views? If it be said that your object is to exercise control over your country's trade, your nationals have had full liberty to trade at Canton for many a year, and have received the greatest consideration at our hands. Missions have been sent by Portugal and Italy, preferring similar requests. The Throne appreciated their sincerity and loaded them with favours, besides authorising measures to facilitate their trade with China. You are no doubt aware that, when my Canton merchant, Wu Chao-ping, who was in debt to foreign ships. I made the Viceroy advance the monies due, out of the provincial treasury, and ordered him to punish the culprit severely. Why then should foreign nations advance this utterly unreasonable request to be represented at my Court? Peking is nearly two thousand miles from Canton, and at such a distance what possible control could any British representative exercise?

If you assert that your reverence for Our Celestial dynasty fills you with a desire to acquire our civilisation, our ceremonies and code of laws differ so completely from your own that, even if your Envoy were able to acquire the rudiments of our civilisation, you could not possibly transplant our manners and customs to your alien soil. Therefore, however adept the Envoy might become, nothing would be gained thereby.

Swaying the wide world, I have but one aim in view, namely, to maintain a perfect governance and to fulfil the duties of the State: strange and costly objects do not interest me. If I have commanded that the tribute offerings sent by you, O King, are to be accepted, this was solely in consideration for the spirit which prompted you to dispatch them from afar. Our dynasty's majestic virtue has penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations have offered their costly tribute by land and sea. As your Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country's manufactures. This then is my answer to your request to appoint a representative at my Court, a request contrary to our dynastic usage, which would only result in inconvenience to yourself. I have expounded my wishes in detail and have commanded your tribute Envoys to leave in peace on their homeward journey. It behoves you, O King, to respect my sentiments and to display even greater devotion and loyalty in future, so that, by perpetual submission to our Throne, you may secure peace and prosperity for your country hereafter. Besides making gifts (of which I enclose an inventory) to each member of your Mission, I confer upon you, O King, valuable presents in excess of the number usually bestowed on such occasions, including silks and curios-a list of which is likewise enclosed. Do you reverently receive them and take note of my tender goodwill towards you! A special mandate.

You, O King, from afar have yearned after the blessings of our civilisation, and in your eagerness to come into touch with our converting influence have sent an Embassy across the sea bearing a memorial. I have already taken note of your respectful spirit of submission, have treated your mission with extreme favour and loaded it with gifts, besides issuing a mandate to you, O King, and honouring you with the bestowal of valuable presents. Thus has my indulgence been manifested.

Yesterday your Ambassador petitioned my Ministers to memorialise me regarding your trade with China, but his proposal is not consistent with our dynastic usage and cannot be entertained. Hitherto, all European nations, including your own country's barbarian merchants, have carried on their trade with our Celestial Empire at Canton. Such has been the procedure for many years, although our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own produce. But as the tea, silk and porcelain which the Celestial Empire produces, are absolute necessities to European nations and to yourselves, we have permitted, as a signal mark of favour, that foreign hongs [merchant firms] should be established at Canton, so that your wants might be supplied and your country thus participate in our beneficence. But your Ambassador has now put forward new requests which completely fail to recognise the Throne's principle to "treat strangers from afar with indulgence," and to exercise a pacifying control over barbarian tribes, the world over. Moreover, our dynasty, swaying the myriad races of the globe, extends the same benevolence towards all. Your England is not the only nation trading at Canton. If other nations, following your bad example, wrongfully importune my ear with further impossible requests, how will it be possible for me to treat them with easy indulgence? Nevertheless, I do not forget the lonely remoteness of your island, cut off from the world by intervening wastes of sea, nor do I overlook your excusable ignorance of the usages of our Celestial Empire. I have consequently commanded my Ministers to enlighten your Ambassador on the subject, and have ordered the departure of the mission. But I have doubts that, after your Envoy's return he may fail to acquaint you with my view in detail or that he may be lacking in lucidity, so that I shall now proceed . . . to issue my mandate on each question separately. In this way you will, I trust, comprehend my meaning....

(3) Your request for a small island near Chusan, where your merchants may reside and goods be warehoused, arises from your desire to develop trade. As there are neither foreign hongs nor interpreters in or near Chusan, where none of your ships have ever called, such an island would be utterly useless for your purposes. Every inch of the territory of our Empire is marked on the map and the strictest vigilance is exercised over it all: even tiny islets and far­lying sand­banks are clearly defined as part of the provinces to which they belong. Consider, moreover, that England is not the only barbarian land which wishes to establish . . . trade with our Empire: supposing that other nations were all to imitate your evil example and beseech me to present them each and all with a site for trading purposes, how could I possibly comply? This also is a flagrant infringement of the usage of my Empire and cannot possibly be entertained.

(4) The next request, for a small site in the vicinity of Canton city, where your barbarian merchants may lodge or, alternatively, that there be no longer any restrictions over their movements at Aomen, has arisen from the following causes. Hitherto, the barbarian merchants of Europe have had a definite locality assigned to them at Aomen for residence and trade, and have been forbidden to encroach an inch beyond the limits assigned to that locality.... If these restrictions were withdrawn, friction would inevitably occur between the Chinese and your barbarian subjects, and the results would militate against the benevolent regard that I feel towards you. From every point of view, therefore, it is best that the regulations now in force should continue unchanged....

(7) Regarding your nation's worship of the Lord of Heaven, it is the same religion as that of other European nations. Ever since the beginning of history, sage Emperors and wise rulers have bestowed on China a moral system and inculcated a code, which from time immemorial has been religiously observed by the myriads of my subjects. There has been no hankering after heterodox doctrines. Even the European (missionary) officials in my capital are forbidden to hold intercourse with Chinese subjects; they are restricted within the limits of their appointed residences, and may not go about propagating their religion. The distinction between Chinese and barbarian is most strict, and your Ambassador's request that barbarians shall be given full liberty to disseminate their religion is utterly unreasonable.

It may be, O King, that the above proposals have been wantonly made by your Ambassador on his own responsibility, or peradventure you yourself are ignorant of our dynastic regulations and had no intention of transgressing them when you expressed these wild ideas and hopes.... If, after the receipt of this explicit decree, you lightly give ear to the representations of your subordinates and allow your barbarian merchants to proceed to Chêkiang and Tientsin, with the object of landing and trading there, the ordinances of my Celestial Empire are strict in the extreme, and the local officials, both civil and military, are bound reverently to obey the law of the land. Should your vessels touch the shore, your merchants will assuredly never be permitted to land or to reside there, but will be subject to instant expulsion. In that event your barbarian merchants will have had a long journey for nothing. Do not say that you were not warned in due time! Tremblingly obey and show no negligence! A special mandate!

From Backhouse, E. and J. O. P. Bland, Annals and Memoirs of the Court of Peking. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914. pp. 322-­331.

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